Windmills are machines that convert energy from the wind into useful work by rotating. The rotation of a windmill often powers a motor or generator used to produce electricity or mechanical work moving objects.
Using wind power to turn the rotation of an object into useful energy and work dates back to 1 st century Greece, and wind wheels are also well documented in 7 th century Persia. They have been used to lift things up and down, especially water from the ground, to power machines thatcrush grain and process food, and more recently to power motors to generate electricity. Windmills are good examples of wheel-and-axle machines.
The string will wind around the straw as the windmill moves and the paper clip will be lifted. Cardstock will likely produce the best sails because it is the stiffest. Printer paper will have the weakest sails. The shape created when folding the corners of the paper into the center creates a sail, which will catch your breath when you blowon it. Your breath will then rotate the wheel, which will rotate the axis.
Because the axis is connected to the string and the dangling paper clip, it will convert the energy from your breath, harnessed by the wheel, into useful work by twisting up the string and lifting the paperclip. You can also build a model of a waterwheel, which uses the same wheel-and-axle machine concept behind the windmill.
The water from the faucet will land on the blades and cause the "wheel" to rotate, lifting the string and paper clip. Bookmark this to easily find it later. Then send your curated collection to your children, or put together your own custom lesson plan. Please note: Use the Contact Us link at the bottom of our website for account-specific questions or issues.
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Share this science project. Download Project. Grade Fifth Grade. Science Applied Science Engineering. Thank you for your input. Which windmill design isthe sturdiest? Which will be better at producing work? Draw an X diagonally, from corner to corner, on each one. Use a hole punch to make a hole in the center large enough for the straw to fit through.
Cut along each line, butstop about half an inch from the center hole. Bring each free corner down to where the cut stops near the center of the paper and secure it with glue. Insert a straw through the center of each windmill, this will serve as the axis. Insert a wooden skewer through the straw so it can rotate freely.
Towards the end of the straw, tape one end of a piece of string to the straw.Powered by wind energy, the windmill is designed to convert the energy supplied by the wind, as it turns the blades of the windmill, into an electric energy.
Originally, windmills were used to grind corn into meal, and later as a means of pumping water. To start your windmill project, prepare the top bearing of your windmill by using popsicle sticks to make an even square, and gluing the pieces into place.
Attach 4 square dowel rods, one to each corner, to the popsicle stick bearing, using small stacks. Space the rods out so that at the bottom they are further apart at the bottom than at the top, where they attach to the bearing.
Spacing the rods like this, provides better stability for the weight the rods will be supporting. Build a second bearing out of popsicle sticks. Make the second bearing the dimensions needed to fit between the 4 dowel rods, half way down the height of the tower. Attach the second bearing to the rods using both small tacks and glue or rubber cement. Cover all 4 edges of both bearings with dowel rods cut to the appropriate lengths. Use rubber cement to put the rods into place.
This step is not necessary but will make your windmill tower look neater. Cut pieces from the dowel rods to attach as cross pieces on the tower and to add additional support for your working windmill model. Find an old fan to use for the blades on your windmill project.
Windmill Model Science Project
Take the fan apart and use the already present hole in the middle of the blades, to attach the blades to the tower using the rivet pieces. Make sure to secure a wooden piece to the top of the tower to attach the blades. Drill a hole through the wooden piece. Affix with eyelets, then place a rivet through that piece as well as the center hole found on the fan blades. Affix into place using the rivet nuts. If you wish to build a working model, find directions on building a windmill and fix the size specifications to meet your needs.
Giselle Diamond is a freelance writer and has been writing since Diamond is experienced in writing in all genres and subjects, with distinguished experience in home and garden, culture and society, literature and psychology.
Diamond has articles published on both eHow and LiveStrong. Things You'll Need. About the Author. Photo Credits. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd.Make a windmill model at home and hold an engineering study with children! With a printable template, building your own toy windmill is a quick and easy STEM activity.
For centuries, they have been used for converting energy from the wind into useful work — grinding, lifting, pumping and, nowadays, generating electricity.
How does it work? The wind turns the blades of windmills, and as they rotate on the axle, it makes the gears and cogs inside of the windmill turn. In a windmill used for making flour, this turns the grinding stones. In a windmill used for pumping water, turning the axle moves a piston or a screw.
In a windmill used for generating power, the drive shaft is connected through many gears to a generator that produces electricity. While being such a versatile and amazing machine, a model windmill is quite easy to build, especially if you have a printable pattern. They will learn about nature while playing games, completing engineering challenges, going on scavenger hunts, and making art with natural materials. You will need:. Approximate time for building one windmill: 30 minutes.
If you use a sharp knife and a ruler, as shown in the video, it goes very quickly. The blades are not glued into the hub, so that their number and pitch can be experimented with. Once you have arrived at the ideal number and pitch, you may decide to glue them in place.
How much difference does the number of blades make? Or the angle that blades are pitched at? Or the distance from the fan? We created a table for conducting the experiment and counted how many times the windmill would turn in half a minute, after we made adjustments to the the blades. To make counting easier, you might want to colour one of the blades with marker on the back. According to our experiment, adjusting the pitch of the blades make more difference than the number of blades did.
Before, I would have guessed the opposite. Here is another short video of us adjusting the blades.
Windmill Model Science Project
Aside from the coloured version, our tutorial includes a template that children can colour themselves. If you do make a coloured windmill, please, share it with us! Your email address will not be published.
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates on our projects, printables and promotions. We have something fun every week! Creating educational games, paper crafts, shadow puppets and other toys. I love my family, books and dark chocolate. Making a craft that actually moves is sure to entertain even the youngest of kids, and with the help of a household fan, our windmill flew.
Now, what dolly can I put inside?A windmill is a structure that converts wind power into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades, specifically to mill grain gristmillsbut the term is also extended to windpumpswind turbines and other applications. Hero of Alexandria Heron in first-century Roman Egypt described what appears to be a wind-driven wheel to power a machine.
The first practical windmills were panemone windmillsusing sails that rotated in a horizontal plane, around a vertical axis. Made of six to 12 sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water.
Vertical-axle windmills were built, in small numbers, in Europe during the 18th and nineteenth centuries,  for example Fowler's Mill at Battersea in London, and Hooper's Mill at Margate in Kent. These early modern examples seem not to have been directly influenced by the vertical-axle windmills of the medieval period, but to have been independent inventions by 18th-century engineers.
The horizontal-axis or vertical windmill so called due to the plane of the movement of its sails is a development of the 12th century, first used in northwestern Europe, in the triangle of northern France, eastern England and Flanders. The earliest certain reference to a windmill in Northern Europe assumed to have been of the vertical type dates fromin the former village of Weedley in Yorkshire which was located at the southern tip of the Wold overlooking the Humber Estuary.
The evidence at present is that the earliest type of European windmill was the post mill, so named because of the large upright post on which the mill's main structure the "body" or "buck" is balanced.
By mounting the body this way, the mill is able to rotate to face the wind direction; an essential requirement for windmills to operate economically in north-western Europe, where wind directions are variable. The body contains all the milling machinery. The first post mills were of the sunken type, where the post was buried in an earth mound to support it.
Later, a wooden support was developed called the trestle. This was often covered over or surrounded by a roundhouse to protect the trestle from the weather and to provide storage space. This type of windmill was the most common in Europe until the 19th century, when more powerful tower and smock mills replaced them.
In a hollow-post mill, the post on which the body is mounted is hollowed out, to accommodate the drive shaft. Hollow-post mills driving scoop wheels were used in the Netherlands to drain wetlands from the 14th century onwards.
By the end of the 13th century, the masonry tower mill, on which only the cap is rotated rather than the whole body of the mill, had been introduced.
The spread of tower mills came with a growing economy that called for larger and more stable sources of power, though they were more expensive to build. In contrast to the post mill, only the cap of the tower mill needs to be turned into the wind, so the main structure can be made much taller, allowing the sails to be made longer, which enables them to provide useful work even in low winds. The cap can be turned into the wind either by winches or gearing inside the cap or from a winch on the tail pole outside the mill.
A method of keeping the cap and sails into the wind automatically is by using a fantaila small windmill mounted at right angles to the sails, at the rear of the windmill. These are also fitted to tail poles of post mills and are common in Great Britain and English-speaking countries of the former British Empire, Denmark, and Germany but rare in other places.
Around some parts of the Mediterranean Sea, tower mills with fixed caps were built because the wind's direction varied little most of the time. The smock mill is a later development of the tower mill, where the masonry tower is replaced by a wooden framework, called the "smock", which is thatched, boarded or covered by other materials, such as slatesheet metalor tar paper. The smock is commonly of octagonal plan, though there are examples with different numbers of sides.
The lighter weight than tower mills make smock mills practical as drainage mills, which often had to be built in areas with unstable subsoil. Smock mills originated for drainage, but are also used for other purposes. When used in a built-up area it is often placed on a masonry base to raise it above the surrounding buildings. Common sails consist of a lattice framework on which a sailcloth is spread.
The miller can adjust the amount of cloth spread according to the wind and the power needed. In medieval mills, the sailcloth was wound in and out of a ladder type arrangement of sails. Later mill sails had a lattice framework over which the sailcloth was spread, while in colder climates, the cloth was replaced by wooden slats, which were easier to handle in freezing conditions.Skip to main content of results for "model wind turbine".
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Ages: 3 years and up. Go back to filtering menu. Need help? Visit the help section or contact us. Skip to main search results.Using a few common household items, you can build a working windmill with your kids for any school science project. If your children are especially keen, you can even make it produce electricity, based on the American wind machine design from the late 19th century. The windmill will generate enough alternating current, or AC, to power a small light bulb.
If the experiment is indoors, or on a calm day, you will need a small electric fan to create the wind. Create the bottom base of the windmill by gluing 10 wooden craft sticks, side-by-side to each other with wood glue. Repeat with another 10 wooden craft sticks, glued side-by-side. Glue the two bases on top of each other, in opposite directions, to make a two-layered bottom.
Create the tower of the windmill by gluing the bottom of the paper towel tube to the center of the base using wood glue. Ensure the paper towel tube is tightly glued down by adding several coats of glue around the edges of the bottom of the paper towel tube. Push the nail through the top of the paper towel tube leaving an inch of space between the top of the tube and the nail.
Spin the nail several times to create a large hole allowing the windmill to easily spin. Glue six wooden craft sticks to the back of the wooden circle spaced evenly apart creating the fan blades. Test the windmill's spinning capability by pointing the fan toward your windmill and turning it on. Attach two magnets to each side of the nail inside the paper towel tube. Wrap the entire roll of magnet wire around the top of the paper towel tube, surrounding the nail hole without covering it up.
Tape down the magnet wire leaving both ends loose by about three inches. Cut back the plastic covering of both ends of the wire by at least one inch. Make sure all the covering is scraped off, exposing the copper colored wire. Test the windmill by turning on the fan which should spin the windmill blades and light the light bulb.
Jennifer Guy, a freelance writer sinceenjoys writing technology and creative arts articles for websites such as eHow. Guy has an associate degree in computer science from the University of Cincinnati, as well as a graphic design certificate from Saddleback College.
Glue a large craft circle to the head of the nail using a glue gun. Twist each end of magnet wire around each end of the light bulb wire tightly. Things You'll Need. About the Author. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd.During these challenging times, we guarantee we will work tirelessly to support you. We will continue to give you accurate and timely information throughout the crisis, and we will deliver on our mission — to help everyone in the world learn how to do anything — no matter what. Thank you to our community and to all of our readers who are working to aid others in this time of crisis, and to all of those who are making personal sacrifices for the good of their communities.
We will get through this together. Updated: September 11, References. Building a working scale-model of a windmill is a great craft project for school or just for fun!
Create a basic pinwheel model, assemble a tin can windmill, or build a windmill with a milk jug base! Once you've got your windmill assembled, observe how the spinning blades convert wind into energy! To prepare a working model of a windmill, you can create a basic pinwheel out of card stock and pin it to a handle with a thumb tack. Alternatively, cut the top off a soda can and trim the sides into 6 equal sections. Then, bend the sides down to form the propellors of your windmill.
To make a base for your windmill, fill a big milk bottle with gravel and attach your pinwheel to it. Or, attach it to the shaft of a small motor if you want a power-generating windmill.
For more tips, including how to make a windmill model step by step, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No.
Wind mill 3D models